The Effect of Smoking on the Baroregulatory System; Heart Rate Turbulence
Alim Erdem, Kenan Yalta, Mehmet Birhan Yılmaz, Okan Onur Turgut, Ahmet Yılmaz, Mesut Özkök, Can Yontar, İzzet Tandoğan, Mehmet Yazıcı
Keywords: Smoking; heart rate; nicotine; tobacco use disorder.
Introduction: Smoking has been known to cause various adverse cardiovascular reactions. Our study was conducted to demonstrate the chronic effects of smoking on baroregulatory function by using heart rate turbulence (HRT) parameters among asymptomatic smokers. Materials and Methods: Sixty four smokers with histories of incessant smoking for at least one year (group 1) and 30 non-smokers (group 2) were enrolled in this study. Addiction of smoking was graded according to the modified Fagerström test for nicotine dependence (m-FNDT). Each smoker was conferred a nicotine dependence index (NDI) according to the m-FNDT. The values of HRT (TO: Turbulence onset, TS: Turbulence slope) were compared between two groups along with basic clinical, echocardiographic and Holter parameters. And the relationship between HRT and m-FDT was analyzed. Results: There was no significant difference the basic clinical and echocardiographic features (p> 0.05). The mean value of TO was higher significantly (p< 0.05) in group 1 than group 2, the mean values of TS was not different significantly between the two groups. The value of NDI was positively correlated with the value of TO (p< 0.05). Conclusion: Smoking impaired baroregulatory function especially in TO, even in asymptomatic smokers.