P Wave and QT Dispersion in Patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Cüneyt Cüneyt, Okan Kemal Kaplan, Melek Zeynep Soner Saygın, Bülent Uzunlar, Hüseyin Uyarel, Mecit Çalışkan
Keywords: ECG, heart, anxiety disorders.
Introduction: The aim of this study is to investigate P wave dispersion (Pd) and QT dispersion (QTd), non-invasive predictors of atrial fi brillation and ventricular arrhythmia or sudden cardiac death, respectively, in patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Patients and Methods: A total of 40 outpatients diagnosed as GAD and 29 healthy control subjects were included in the study. Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were administered and 12-lead ECG measurements were obtained. Pd and QTd measurements were performed by blinded cardiologists. Results: BAI scores (26.6 ± 11.8 vs. 3.4 ± 3.3, p< 0.001) and BDI scores (12.6 ± 4 vs. 3.7 ± 4.5, p< 0.001) were signifi cantly higher in the patient group compared to the controls. P wave dispersion (Pd) [50.0 ± 17.5 miliseconds (ms) vs. 23.4 ± 7.7 ms, p< 0.001] and mean QT dispersion (QTd) (50.5 ± 18.1 ms vs. 28.3 ± 11.4 ms, p< 0.001) signifi cantly increased in the GAD patient group compared to the controls. Conclusion: Increase in Pd may suggest that GAD patients have increased risk of atrial fi brillation. Similarly, increased QTd may show that these patients have a higher risk of ventricular arrhythmia.