Early Impairment of Right Ventricular Functions in Patients with Moderate Asthma and the Role of Isovolumic Acceleration
1Clinic of Cardiology, Etimesgut Şehit Sait Ertürk State Hospital, Ankara, Türkiye
2 Clinic of Cardiology, International Ankara Hospital, Atılım University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Türkiye
Keywords: Asthma; echocardiography; ventricular function; right ventricular dysfunction; pulmonary hypertension
Introduction: Asthma is a common chronic lung disease that affects people all over the world. Pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction are possible complications that may develop in the advanced stages of asthma. However, the number of studies investigating asthma and its implications on new RV parameters are very rare. This study aims to evaluate the RV functions in patients with moderate asthma before the development of pulmonary hypertension.
Patients and Methods: Forty-one patients with moderate asthma and 40 healthy individuals were enrolled in this case-control study. All participants underwent a detailed two-dimensional echocardiographic examination. RV functions were measured through RV isovolumic acceleration (IVA) index in addition to conventional parameters. RV IVA, a tissue doppler derived parameter, was calculated as the ratio between maximum isovolumic myocardial velocity during isovolumic contraction and the time interval from the onset of this wave to the time at its maximum velocity.
Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of baseline clinical characteristics, laboratory findings and echocardiographic parameters measuring left ventricular functions (p> 0.05). In asthmatic patients, RV isovolumic relaxation time and RV myocardial performance index were higher (p= 0.027 and p<0.001 respectively), while RV fractional area change, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and RV IVA values were all lower (p<0.001). RV IVA was found to be inversely proportional to asthma duration. TAPSE [β= 0.632, 95% CI= (0.121) - (0.225), p<0.001] and pulmonary artery systolic pressure [β= -0.188, 95% CI= (-0.057) - (-0.003), p= 0.032] were shown as independent predictors of RV IVA.
Conclusion: Asthma is an important disease that may result in subclinical RV dysfunction even before the development of pulmonary hypertension. RV IVA, an easily obtained and load-independent parameter, may be a useful and reliable index that sensitively analyzes subtle deteriorations in the contractile function of RV in asthmatic patients. RV IVA may also correlate with asthma duration.
Cite this article as: Karasu BB, Ayhan H. Early impairment of right ventricular functions in patients with moderate asthma and the role of isovolumic acceleration. Koşuyolu Heart J 2022;25(2):157-164.
The approval for this study was obtained from Yıldırım Beyazıt University Faculty of Medicine Clinical Research Ethics Committee (Decision no: 123, Date: 11.12.2019)
This is retrospective study, we could not obtain written informed consent from the participants.
Concept/Design - BK, HA; Analysis/Interpretation - BK; Data Collection -BK; Writing - BK; Critical Revision - BK, HA; Statistical Analysis - BK; Final Approval - BK, HA; Overall Responsibility - BK, HA.
The authors declared that there was no conflict of interest during the preparation and publication of this article.
The authors declared that this study has received no financial support.
We thank Dr. Hatun Temel Aydıncak (Pulmonary Diseases Specialist) for her contributions to data collection for the manuscript.