Takotsubo Syndrome Presenting with Syncope and Third-Degree Atrioventricular Block Requiring Permanent Pacemaker Implantation
Clinic of Cardiology, Koşuyolu High Specialization Training and Research Hospital, İstanbul, Turkey
Keywords: Cardiomyopathy; syncope; atrioventricular block; cardiac pacemaker; electrophysiology
Takotsubo syndrome (TS) is an acute but transient heart failure syndrome and it is very uncommon for TS to present with syncope and complete atrioventricular (AV) block. In this report, we discuss a case of TS complicated by a third-degree AV block presented to the emergency department with syncope and requiring permanent pacemaker implantation. A 53-year-old female was admitted to our emergency department with complaints of syncopal episodes and chest pain. Due to ongoing chest pain, electrocardiography (ECG) findings and segmentary wall motion abnormality on the transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), she was immediately transferred to the cardiac catheterization laboratory. Coronary angiogram revealed normal coronary arteries and left ventriculography demonstrated apical ballooning and hypokinesis of the apex. Once the diagnosis of TS was established, the patient was transferred to the coronary intensive care unit (CICU). Initial ECG at CICU demonstrated complete AV block with a heart rate of 35 beats/min. On the third day of hospitalization, repeat TTE showed improved left ventricular functions with an ejection fraction of 50%. During the follow-up period in CICU, complete AV block persisted and the rhythm did not return to normal sinus rhythm after six days of monitorization. An electrophysiological study demonstrated supra-hisian atrioventricular block and atrioventricular dissociation. On the seventh day of hospitalization, TTE demonstrated recovered ventricular functions with an ejection fraction of 65%, and a dual pacemaker was then implanted. Her third-month followup was uneventful and TTE showed normal left ventricular functions but pacemaker interrogation revealed 99% of ventricular pacing. This case report demonstrated that the decision to implant a permanent pacemaker in such patients should be considered on a case-by-case basis, and an electrophysiological study could be valuable on this decision.
Written informed consent was obtained from patient who participated.
Concept/Design - BK; Analysis/Interpretation - ZEG; Data Collection - MA; Writing - ŞK; Critical Revision - BK; Final Approval - AU; Statistical Analysis - AK; Obtained Funding - MA; Overall Responsibility - ŞK, BK.
All authors declare that they do not have conflict of interest.
The authors declared that this study has received no financial support.