Ömer Faruk Şavluk1, Abdullah Arif Yılmaz2, Yasemin Yavuz1, Fatma Ukil Işıldak1, Babürhan Özbek2, Ergin Arslanoğlu2, Nihat Çine2, Hakan Ceyran2

1Department of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Kartal Koşuyolu High Specialization Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey
2Department of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, Kartal Koşuyolu High Specialization Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey

Keywords: Conventional oxygen therapy; high-flow nasal cannula; pediatric cardiac surgery.

Abstract

Introduction: Infants and children with congenital heart disease may develop respiratory failure in association with cardiac surgery or as a result of heart disease. In fact, the postextubation period in this group of patients can be complex and the use of continuous positive airway pressure or non-invasive ventilation may be necessary if conventional oxygen therapy is not sufficient. The aim of our study was to compare efficiency and outcomes of high-flow nasal cannula or conventional oxygen therapy post-extubation after pediatric cardiac surgery.

Patients and Methods: A single centre retrospective study was conducted between January and December 2020 in our 12 beds pediatric cardiac intensive care unit. Patients were divided into two groups. In one group 45 patients (Group I), those who received high-flow nasal cannula after extubation, and in the other group 45 patients (Group II), those who received oxygen therapy with a mask after extubation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the rela- tive efficacy of high flow nasal cannula and conventional oxygen therapy on PaCO2, PaO2 and PaO2/FiO2.

Results: PaO2 values at 1, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hour post-extubation were significantly higher in high-flow nasal cannula group (p< 0.05). PaCO2 values were significantly lower in the high-flow nasal cannula group at 1, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hour post-extubation (p= 0.01). PaO2/FiO2 values in high-flow nasal cannula group at all-time points post-extubation were significantly higher than in conventional oxygen therapy group (p= 0.01).

Conclusion: High-flow nasal cannula is useful in decreasing PaCO2 and improving PaO2 in children follow- ing extubation after cardiac surgery. In addition, the simplicity of and tolerability to high-flow nasal cannula is also important. Although more expensive, the use of high-flow nasal cannula can be considered as a safe and effective alternative to conventional oxygen therapy following pediatric cardiac surgery.