Hakan Çakır, Samet Uysal, Ali Karagöz, Cüneyt Toprak, Lütfi Öcal, Mehmet Yunus Emiroğlu, Cihangir Kaymaz

Clinic of Cardiology, Kartal Koşuyolu Cardiovascular Research and Training Hospital, İstanbul, Türkiye

Keywords: Infective endocarditis; microbiology; epidemiology; mortality


Introduction: Despite advances in prevention, medical, and surgical treatment, the global prevalence of infective endocarditis (IE) has been gradually rising over the last two decades. However, the profile of IE varies by continent, geographic region, and hospital type. In this study, we aimed to investigate the epidemiological and clinical features of IE and to determine the factors predicting in-hospital mortality.

Patients and Methods: This retrospective study was carried out at a single tertiary health care hospital in Türkiye. A total of 104 consecutive patients (>18 years old) who were hospitalized with IE between January 2016 and August 2021 were included. Modified Duke criteria were used to diagnose IE. Demographic information (age and gender), underlying heart diseases, comorbidities, causative microorganisms, blood culture results, echocardiographic findings, cardiac and extracardiac complications, surgical requirements, and in-hospital mortality were all examined.

Results: The study included 104 IE cases (mean age: 57.2 ± 15.9 years; 59.6% males). Fifty-six patients (53.9%) had native valve IE, 37 patients (35.6%) had prosthetic valve IE, and four patients (3.8%) had devicerelated IE. Blood cultures were negative in 62 cases (59.6%). Staphylococcus aureus was the most common responsible microorganism in 17 patients [methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus in 13 (12.5%), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus in four (3.8%)]. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 30.8%. White blood cell count (OR= 1.002, 95% CI= 1.001-1.003) creatinine (OR= 1.45, 95% CI= 1.08-2.00), acute renal failure (OR= 8.60, 95% CI= 2.27-37.81), and cerebrovascular accidents (OR= 4.58, 95% CI= 1.21-18.85) were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality.

Conclusion: In line with developed countries, the epidemiology and causative pathogens of IE in Türkiye have been changing. Investigating these epidemiological and clinical changes may serve as a basis for strategies to be developed for the prevention and treatment of IE.

Cite this article as: Çakır H, Uysal S, Karagöz A, Toprak C, Öcal L, Emiroğlu MY, et al. The clinical course of infective endocarditis and independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. Koşuyolu Heart J 2022;25(2):115-121.

Ethics Committee Approval

The approval for this study was obtained from Kartal Koşuyolu High Specialization Training and Research Hospital Ethics Committee (Decision no: 2022/1/567, Date: 11.01.2022).

Peer Review

Externally peer-reviewed.

Author Contributions

Concept/Design - HÇ; Analysis/Interpretation - HÇ, LÖ; Data Collection - SU, CT, LÖ; Writing - HÇ; Critical Revision - CK, MYE; Final Approval -MYE, CK; Statistical Analysis - AK, HÇ; Overall Responsibility - HÇ.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declared that there was no conflict of interest during the preparation and publication of this article.

Financial Disclosure

The authors declared that this study has received no financial support.