Kosuyolu Heart J 2012;15(1)
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Kosuyolu Heart J 2012;15(1):6-11 - doi: 10.5578/kkd.3619
The Effect of Smoking on the Baroregulatory System; Heart Rate Turbulence

The Effect of Smoking on the Baroregulatory System; Heart Rate Turbulence

Alim Erdem1, Kenan Yalta2, Mehmet Birhan Yılmaz2, Okan Onur Turgut2, Ahmet Yılmaz2,
Mesut Özkök3, Can Yontar2, İzzet Tandoğan2, Mehmet Yazıcı1


1 Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu, Turkey

2 Department of Cardiology, Sivas Numune Hospital, Sivas, Turkey

3 Department of Endocrinology, Faculty of Medicine, Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaras, Turkey

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Smoking has been known to cause various adverse cardiovascular reactions. Our study was conducted to demonstrate the chronic effects of smoking on baroregulatory function by using heart rate turbulence (HRT) parameters among asymptomatic smokers.

Materials and Methods: Sixty four smokers with histories of incessant smoking for at least one year (group 1) and 30 non-smokers (group 2) were enrolled in this study. Addiction of smoking was graded according to the modified Fagerström test for nicotine dependence (m-FNDT). Each smoker was conferred a nicotine dependence index (NDI) according to the m-FNDT. The values of HRT (TO: Turbulence onset, TS: Turbulence slope) were compared between two groups along with basic clinical, echocardiographic and Holter parameters. And the relationship between HRT and m-FDT was analyzed.

Results: There was no significant difference the basic clinical and echocardiographic features (p> 0.05). The mean value of TO was higher significantly (p< 0.05) in group 1 than group 2, the mean values of TS was not different significantly between the two groups. The value of NDI was positively correlated with the value of TO (p< 0.05).

Conclusion: Smoking impaired baroregulatory function especially in TO, even in asymptomatic smokers.

Key Words: Smoking; heart rate; nicotine; tobacco use disorder.

Received: 27.08.2011 • Accepted: 22.11.2011

doi: 10.5578/kkd.3619

Correspondence

Dr. Alim Erdem

Abant İzzet Baysal Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi,

Kardiyoloji Anabilim Dalı,

Bolu-Türkiye

e-posta: dralimerdem@gmail.com

Sigara Alışkanlığının Baroregülatuvar Sisteme Olan Etkisi; Kalp Hızı Türbülansı

Sigara Alışkanlığının Baroregülatuvar Sisteme Olan Etkisi; Kalp Hızı Türbülansı

The Effect of Smoking on the Baroregulatory System; Heart Rate Turbulence

Alim Erdem1, Kenan Yalta2, Mehmet Birhan Yılmaz2, Okan Onur Turgut2, Ahmet Yılmaz2,
Mesut Özkök3, Can Yontar2, İzzet Tandoğan2, Mehmet Yazıcı1


1 Abant İzzet Baysal Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi, Kardiyoloji Anabilim Dalı, Bolu, Türkiye

1 Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu, Turkey

2 Sivas Numune Hastanesi, Kardiyoloji Bölümü, Sivas, Türkiye

2 Department of Cardiology, Sivas Numune Hospital, Sivas, Turkey

3 Sütçü İmam Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi, Endokrinoloji Anabilim Dalı, Kahramanmaraş, Türkiye

3 Department of Endocrinology, Faculty of Medicine, Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaras, Turkey

ÖZET

Giriş: Sigaranın kardiyovasküler sisteme olan zararlı etkileri bilinmektedir. Çalışmamızın amacı sigara içiminin baroregülatuvar mekanizmaya olan etkilerini, kalp hızı türbülansını kullanarak normal kişilerle karşılaştırmaktır.

Materyal ve Metod: En az bir yıldır sigara içme öyküsü olan asemptomatik 64 kişi grup 1 olarak kabul edildi. Aynı klinik özelliklere sahip asemptomatik sigara alışkanlığı olmayan 30 kişi grup 2 olarak düzenlendi. Çalışmaya alınan grup 1'deki sigara içicilerinin nikotin bağımlılık indeksi (NBİ) modifiye-Fagerström Nikotin bağımlılık testi (m-FNBT) kullanılarak hesaplandı. Tüm gruplardaki hastalara 24 saatlik elektrokardiyografi Holter takılarak, tamamının HRT (TO, total onset ve TS, total slope) ile bazal ekokardiyografik parametreleri hesaplandı.

Bulgular: Gruplar arasında taşıdıkları demografik, klinik ve ekokardiyografik özellikler açısından istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir fark saptanmadı (p> 0.05). Grup 1'de ortalama TO değeri anlamlı olarak yüksek iken (p< 0.05), ortalama TS değerleri arasında iki grup arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir fark saptanmadı (p> 0.05). Grup 1'de hesaplanan NBİ değeri ile ortalama TO arasında pozitif korelasyon saptandı (p< 0.05).

Sonuç: Kronik sigara içicisi olanlarda, aynı özelliklere sahip içmeyen gruba oranla baroregülatuvar mekanizmada (özellikle TO) bozulma olduğu saptandı.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Sigara içme; kalp hızı; nikotin; tütün kullanımı.

Geliş Tarihi: 27.08.2011 Kabul Tarihi: 22.11.2011

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Smoking has been known to cause various adverse cardiovascular reactions. Our study was conducted to demonstrate the chronic effects of smoking on baroregulatory function by using heart rate turbulence (HRT) parameters among asymptomatic smokers.

Materials and Methods: Sixty four smokers with histories of incessant smoking for at least one year (group 1) and 30 non-smokers (group 2) were enrolled in this study. Addiction of smoking was graded according to the modified Fagerström test for nicotine dependence (m-FNDT). Each smoker was conferred a nicotine dependence index (NDI) according to the m-FNDT. The values of HRT (TO: Turbulence onset, TS: Turbulence slope) were compared between two groups along with basic clinical, echocardiographic and Holter parameters. And the relationship between HRT and m-FDT was analyzed.

Results: There was no significant difference the basic clinical and echocardiographic features (p> 0.05). The mean value of TO was higher significantly (p< 0.05) in group 1 than group 2, the mean values of TS was not different significantly between the two groups. The value of NDI was positively correlated with the value of TO (p< 0.05).

Conclusion: Smoking impaired baroregulatory function especially in TO, even in asymptomatic smokers.

Key Words: Smoking; heart rate; nicotine; tobacco use disorder.

Received: 27.08.2011 • Accepted: 22.11.2011

doi: 10.5578/kkd.3619

Yazışma Adresi/Correspondence

Dr. Alim Erdem

Abant İzzet Baysal Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi,

Kardiyoloji Anabilim Dalı,

Bolu-Türkiye

e-posta: dralimerdem@gmail.com

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